Our commodity-based activated carbons are primarily manufactured from three raw materials: coconut shell, coal and wood. Pyrolysis or carbonization and activation are the two major steps for producing activated carbons. The pyrolysis process involves removal of moisture and volatile matters from the raw material. In pyrolysis, the raw material is exposed to an inert atmosphere at 600 to 900°C. Once pyrolysis is completed, the "char" (output of pyrolysis) is activated. Activation results in creation of pores. In the activation process, the "char" is exposed to activating agents such as carbon dioxide, steam, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, zinc chloride, phosphoric acid, etc. at temperatures between 250 to 1200°C.